The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (CPB) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) was adopted in 2000 in Montreal, Canada. It was ratified by Rwanda in 2003. The objective of the Protocol is to provide adequate level of the protection in the field of the safe transfer, handling and use of living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity.

It is required that all parties to the Protocol put in place appropriate legal and regulatory mechanisms for ensuring the effective implementation.